July 16, 2015

LE CORBUSIER: MESURES DE L’HOMME AT CENTRE POMPIDOU




LE CORBUSIER: MESURES DE L’HOMME AT CENTRE POMPIDOU PARIS
29 APRIL - 3 AUGUST 2015




LE CORBUSIER: MESURES DE L’HOMME AT CENTRE POMPIDOU PARIS
29 APRIL - 3 AUGUST 2015
 GALERIE 2, LEVEL 6
The Centre Pompidou is devoting a completely new retrospective, featuring some three hundred works, to the output of Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, aka Le Corbusier.
Not only a visionary architect, urban planner and theorist of modernity, but also a painter and sculptor, Le Corbusier made a profound impression on the 20th century in dramatically changing architecture and the way it is «inhabited». His international career flourished long before globalisation made its appearance.
Adopting a decidedly innovative approach, the Centre Pompidou takes a fresh look at the output of this major figure in modernity through the proportions of the human body, which Le Corbusier considered essential as a universal principle. For the architect, this «measurement of man» defined all aspects of architecture and spatial composition.
Central to a colossal and multi-faceted body of work was Le Corbusier’s conception of an essential, universal measurement: the thinking, seeing «mass production man».  After his studies, notably in Germany, Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (the future Le Corbusier) was influenced by the psychophysicists and by theories on scientific aesthetics, which held that everything was measurable, including sensations, cognitive reactions and human psychology. This concept of measurement lay behind the work of the urban planner, architect and furniture designer, and imbued the work of the painter.
Mathematical it might be, but this line of research never strayed from the human being, and adapted itself to human gestures, viewpoints and thought. The «housing unit» invented by Le Corbusier was small but practical, because on a human scale, while furniture became flexible, to accommodate the movements of the body. The eye and mind of the «perceptive» viewer created a Purist picture whose interpretation was intended to be subjective. The human body – or some of its sensitive components – were subjects for painting: often women’s bodies, but also hands, feet and ears.
In 1943, Le Corbusier created the «Modulor», a system of measurement based on the height of the average man: 183 cm, or 226 cm with the arm raised. Promoted through a book entitled The Modulor: A Harmonious Measure to the Human Scale, Universally Applicable to Architecture and Mechanics, published in 1950, the «Modulor» was presented as a philosophical, mathematical and historical truth, as Le Corbusier’s invention echoed traditional systems.
The new approach taken by this exhibition presents every facet of the artist’s work through some 300 paintings, sculptures, drawings, architectural drawings, models, objects, films, photographs and documents – all illustrating the prolific output of this native of the Swiss Jura, who took French citizenship in 1930, and made Paris his home. 
Commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of his death, this key exhibition aims to enlighten audiences on the breadth and complexity of Le Corbusier’s work, thinking and humanism.

https://www.centrepompidou.fr/cpv/ressource.action?param.id=FR_R-2bb95fa5a764abcd6d4dd23976c6ddba&param.idSource=FR_E-4db6946e85e36d2f59263e519c45e65




TAUREAU ORANGE ET BLEU 1964
Enamel
Dimensions: H : 0,53 m x L : 0,53 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris




FEMME DANSANT 1954
Polychromed Wood Mounted on Iron Base
Dimensions: H : 0,54 m x L : 0,31 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris




PEINTURE MURALE, 35 RUE DE SEVRES A PARIS 1948
Oil on Plywood
Dimensions: H : 3,82 m x L : 3,50 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris






PEINTURE MURALE, 35 RUE DE SEVRES A PARIS 1948 ( DETAIL )






PEINTURE MURALE, 35 RUE DE SEVRES A PARIS 1948 ( DETAIL )




ICONE 1963
Natural Wood, Mahogany
Dimensions: H: 0,53 m x L: 0.35m x L: 0.20 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris




OZON II, 1962
Polychromed Wood
Dimensions: H : 0,80 m x L : 0,80 m x l : 0,35 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris






UBU 1947
Natual Wood, Alder
Dimensions: H : 0,915 m x L : 0,49 m x l : 0,47 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris






UBU IV - 1940 / 1944
Huile Sur Toile
Dimensions: 100 x 80 cm
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris












PALAIS DE L’ ASSEMBLEE, CHANDIGARH, INDIA 1955














LA MAIN OUVERTE 1964
Encre et Crayon Gras Sur Papier
Dimensions: 141,5 x 96 cm
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris






LA MAIN OUVERTE 1955
Page 145 du Poème de l'angle droit
Lithographie en 7 Couleurs Exécutée Dans les Ateliers
 Mourlot d'après un Collage Original de Le Corbusier
Dimensions : 0,37 m x 0,285 m
Editeur Tériade
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris




MAIN OUVERTE, CHANDIGARH, INDIA, 1950 - 1965
© FLC/ADAGP




’’ LA MAIN OUVERTE ‘’ 1954
Aquarelle et Papier Collé Sur Papier
Dimensions: H : 0,21 m x L : 0,27 m
Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris © FLC/ADAGP












PALAIS DE L’ ASSEMBLEE, CHANDIGARH, INDIA 1955






CENTRE LE CORBUSIER








FEMME EN BLANC, BARQUE ET COQUILLAGE 1965
Enamel
Dimensions: H : 0,53 m x L : 0,53 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris










TROIS FEMMES DEBOUT 1956
Enamel
Dimensions: H : 0,50 m x L : 0,4 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris






FAUTEUIL GRAND CONFORT 1928
Structure Métallique. Coussins Amovibles en Cuir
Dimensions: 67 x 97 x 70 cm
Prototype - Dation, 2004
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris














LE MODULOR 1950
Encre de Chine et Collage de Papiers Gouachés et Découpés
Dimensions: 70 x 54 cm
Collage Original
Don Crédit immobilier de France, 2003
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris




THE MODULOR
«The Parthenon, the temples of India and the cathedrals were built according to precise measures constituting a code, a coherent system that asserted an essential unity. […] The Egyptians, the Chaldeans, the Greeks and so forth built, and consequently measured. What tools did they use? Everlasting, enduring tools; tools that were precious because they were connected with the human figure […]: cubit (elbow), digit (finger), inch (thumb), foot, span, pace, etc. […]. They were an integral part of the human body, and thus fit to serve as measures for the huts, houses and temples that had to be built. But more than that, they were infinitely rich and subtle because they were part of the mathematics of the human body - graceful, elegant, firm mathematics: the source of the harmony that moves us: beauty.»

Le Modulor, pp. 18-19
























ARIANE ET PASIPHAE 1961
Lithography in 6 Colours Executed Mourlot
Workshop After an Original Collage by Le Corbusier
Dimensions: 0,647 m x 0,954 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris




EGLISE SAINT PIERRE, FIRMINY, FRANCE, 1960 – 2006












EGLISE SAINT PIERRE, FIRMINY, FRANCE, 1960 - 2006
Photo : Olivier Martin-Gambier 2008
© "Conception, Le Corbusier architecte, José Oubrerie assistant (1960-65)
Réalisation, José Oubrerie architecte (1968-2007)











EGLISE SAINT PIERRE, FIRMINY, FRANCE, 1960 - 2006
Photo : Olivier Martin-Gambier 2008
© "Conception, Le Corbusier architecte, José Oubrerie assistant (1960-65)
Réalisation, José Oubrerie architecte (1968-2007)










THE CENTRE POMPIDOU PARIS




THE CENTRE POMPIDOU
"On the Piazza and outside the usable volume, all public movement facilities have been centrifuged. On the opposite side, all the technical equipment and pipelines have been centrifuged. Each floor is thus completely free and it can be used for all forms of cultural activities – both known and yet to be discovered.
 Renzo Piano, architect, Centre Pompidou  
THE ARCHITECTURE
Designed as an "evolving spatial diagram" by architects Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers, the architecture of the Centre Pompidou boasts a series of technical characteristics that make it unique. Its originality comes first from the flexible use of large interior plateaux of 7,500 m2 , each completely free, with an easily modifiable layout. Using steel (15,000 tons) and glass (11,000 m² of glass surface), the builders created a major pioneering building back in the 70s, in a country more used at the time to visions in concrete. The building of the Centre Pompidou, in its use of glass and steel, is also heir to the great iron constructions of the Industrial Age, from Paxton's Crystal Palace, but also futuristic in many ways. A prototype in all respects, it lines up with the architectural utopias of Archigram and Superstudio in the 60s.
BUILDING STRUCTURE
The metal frame consists of 14 portal frames supporting 13 transverse members, each spanning 48m and set 12.80m apart. Eight-meter-long, 10-tonne moulded steel members known as "stirrup straps" are fixed to the posts at each level.
 The 45-meter-long beams rest on these stirrup straps, which transfer the loads to the posts and are balanced by tie beams anchored in stay plates. Each storey is 7m high floor to floor. The glass and steel superstructure encloses the large multipurpose spaces, which are designed to be fully modular and adjustable to changing usages.
COLOUR CODE
Colours have been used to decorate the structure, using a "code" defined by the architects:
 - blue for circulating air (air conditioning);
 - yellow for circulating electricity;
 - green for circulating water;
 - red for circulating people (escalators and lifts).
The title of the quarterly program magazine is a reference to this "color code" as a symbol of the Centre Pompidou's multidisciplinary nature.
https://www.centrepompidou.fr/en/The-Centre-Pompidou#591




























LE PETIT HOMME 1944
Natural Wood
Dimensions: H : 0,40 m
Base dimensions: H : 0,10 m x L : 0,10 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris






NATURE MORTE ‘’ HARMONIQUE PERILLEUSE ‘’ 1931
Huile Sur Toile
Dimensions: 96 x 130 cm
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris














FEMME 1953
Polychromed Wood
Dimensions: H : 1,83 m x L : 0,69 m x l : 0,20 m
Base dimensions: H : 0,53 m x L : 0,43 m x l : 0,09 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris










LA FEMME AU GUERIDON ET AU FER A CHEVAL 1928
Oil on Canvas
Dimensions: H : 1,46 m x L : 0,89 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris






CITE UNIVERSITAIRE, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRASIL - 1936
© FLC/ADAGP






VILLA SCHWOB 1916 - 1917
Crayon Graphite et Encre de Chine Sur Calque 
Rehaussé de Crayons de Couleurs
Dimensions: 44,2 x 88,2 cm
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris






PROJECT POUR LES ATELIERS D’ART DE LA CHAUX DE FONDS 1910
Crayons de Couleurs, Encre de Chine et Mine de Plomb Sur Papier
Dimensions: 31 x 40 cm
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris








2 AVRIL 1925
 Image © FLC, ADAGP, Paris 2015






POLYHEME 1955
Black Ink, Newspaper and Collage on Paper
Dimensions: H : 0,635 m x L : 0,48 m
Collage FLC 100
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris








CHAPELLE NOTRE DAME DU HAUT, RONCHAMP, FRANCE, 1950 – 1955




















CHAPELLE NOTRE DAME DU HAUT, RONCHAMP, FRANCE, 1950 – 1955






PAVILLON DES TEMPS NOUVEAYX, PANNEAU MURAL ‘’ HABITER ‘’ 1937
Papiers Découpés et Encre Brune Sur Papier
Dimensions: 21 x 31 cm
Collage
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris










LES MAINS 1956
Natural Wood, Walnut
Dimensions: H: 0,30 m x L: 0.20 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris






ABATTOIR FRIGORIFIQUE, CHALLUY, FRANCE 1917
© FLC/ADAGP










PLAN DE LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS, LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS, SWITZERLAND 1913
© FLC/ADAGP






UNITE D’ HABITATION, MARSEILLE, FRANCE 1945




THE HOUSING UNIT

«Here it stands:  the «Unité d’habitation de grandeur conforme» built according to no regulations, in the face of disastrous regulations. Built for people, on a human scale. Built, too, using robust modern techniques, revealing the modern splendour of bare concrete. And lastly, built as a means of putting today’s sensational resources to the service of a family home, that fundamental unit of society.»  Le Corbusier’s speech to Mr. Claudius-Petit, Minister for Reconstruction and Town Planning, on the occasion of the handing over of Unité d’Habitation de Marseille on 14 October 1952























UNITE D’ HABITATION, MARSEILLE, FRANCE 1945














PAVILLON DE L’ESPRIT NOUVEAU IN BOLOGNA






PAVILLON DE L’ESPRIT NOUVEAU IN BOLOGNA






PAVILION PHILIPS, EXPOSITION INTERNATIONALE DE 1958, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM












PAVILION PHILIPS, EXPOSITION INTERNATIONALE DE 1958, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM








HIGH COURT ( HAUTE COUR ), CHANDIGARH, INDIA, 1952












HIGH COURT ( HAUTE COUR ), CHANDIGARH, INDIA, 1952








TROIS MUSICIENNES 1936
Huile Sur Toile, 
Dimensions: 0,97 x 1,30 m
 Image © FLC, ADAGP, Paris 2015














DEUX FEMMES ASSISES 1929
Oil on Canvas
Dimensions: H : 0,81 m x L : 1,00 m
Image © Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris












MUSEE AHMEDABAD, CHAMDIGARH, INDIA, 1952












MUSEE AHMEDABAD, CHAMDIGARH, INDIA, 1952












VILLA SAVOYE, POISSY - FRANCE 1928










VILLA SAVOYE, POISSY - FRANCE 1928








PLAN AND CIRCUIT OF THE EXHIBITION
MESURES DE L’HOMME BY FRÉDÉRIC MIGAYROU AND OLIVIER CINQUALBRE, CURATORS OF THE EXHIBITION
PUBLISHED IN LE CODE COULEUR N0 21, JANUARY– APRIL 2015
The Centre Pompidou is devoting a retrospective to the work of Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, aka Le Corbusier. Not only a visionary architect, urban planner and theorist of modernity, but also a painter and sculptor, Le Corbusier made a profound impression on the 20th century by dramatically changing architecture and the way it is «inhabited».  The Centre Pompidou invites audiences to get a picture of the entire output of this major figure in modernity through the idea of human proportions, since the human body was essential for Le Corbusier as a universal principle defining all aspects of architecture and spatial composition.
The concept of the Modulor (1944), the silhouette of a human body 1.83 m tall, formalised a system of proportion based on the golden section, enabling him to construct a harmony defined according to human morphology. And yet the Modulor – which established itself as a genuine normative system for numerous architects, governing the form of interiors and the proportion of buildings alike – seems to have been interpreted as a metrical instrument, a purely abstract measurement for organising architecture according to a geometrical rationale.  The exhibition examines the sources of Le Corbusier’s conception of the human body: a body in motion, which defined his idea of eurythmia (one of his Five Points of Architecture: a «harmonious rhythm» and graceful proportions). He began to explore this principle in the early 1910s under the influence of the school at Hellerau, a garden city near Dresden, where his brother Albert Jeanneret was studying with the composer and music teacher Émile Jaques-Dalcroze. In this seat of artistic experimentation, Dalcroze developed eurythmics, a method of learning and experiencing music and dance through movement based on physical perception and a cognition of space defined by interactions between space, time and energy. These ideas profoundly influenced Le Corbusier.
Le Corbusier studied with the architect Peter Behrens between 1910 and 1911 in Germany, where he met Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius. In 1912, he published a study on the Art Deco movement in Germany, in which he subscribed to the principles of the Werkbund (a movement promoting innovation in the applied arts and architecture, founded in 1907) and the garden city movement. This has its origins in the Lebensreform (life reform) movement, involving a search for harmony based on the psychophysical theories of the German philosopher Gustav Fechner and the psychologist Wilhelm Wundt. 
Le Corbusier drew on these ideas to conceive a dynamic and an aesthetic of space now governed by rhythm and movement, with the idea of a «seeing» body. These ideas had a decisive influence on his painting and his entire work, through the definition of the «scientific aesthetic».
Based on a chronology structured by the main stages of this new aesthetic concept, the exhibition offers a fresh journey through Le Corbusier’s work. Here the body is «seeing» and «cognitive», and we get a consistent picture of all the thinking that went into his painted, sculpted and architectural output. The modernist Le Corbusier who created Purist architecture is often pitted against the post-war Le Corbusier, the exponent of a concrete Brutalism and more organic forms. But the exhibition shows how his entire approach was in fact totally seamless. It opens with a room devoted to defining the idea of rhythm and eurythmia. It looks back on the influence of Peter Behrens’ regulating lines, the influence of J. L. M. Lauweriks, and Le Corbusier’s travel diary of the Journey in the East he began in 1911. Throughout his life, he drew on these well-stocked notebooks of drawings and notes made during this formative trip. At that time, the architect was theorising about the perceptual and cognitive unity of an architectural object, which he finally symbolised with a cube. This white cube is found in the first Purist drawings, and the picture entitled La Cheminée (1918) – a painting that became the cornerstone of his collaboration with the painter Amédée Ozenfant, with whom he founded the Purism movement and the review entitled L’Esprit nouveau. Their explorations notably took shape in still lifes structured as variations based on regulating lines. In a critical relationship with Cubism, they asserted a psychophysical dimension: the existence of the psychophysical parallelism between mind and body championed by Gustav Fechner. It was in this review that Le Corbusier – still Charles-Edouard Jeanneret – used his pseudonym for the first time.
One section of the exhibition is dedicated to the review and the first villas built as manifestos. With the Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau designed for the 1925 International Exhibition of Decorative Arts, Le Corbusier gave shape to a cognitive space simultaneously defining the pictorial space, the «living» space, the harmony of the architectural compositions and the comprehension of the urban sphere. Le Corbusier’s seminal article entitled «Eyes that do not see» defined the new space of modernity: that of a society now full of machines, automobiles, aeroplanes and steamboats, where movement and mobility introduced a new conception of space/ time. The villas (Villa Stein, Villa Savoye, etc.) established themselves as manifestos of this architecture organised for the liberated body, conceived as an open plan filled with light. Throughout the Thirties, Le Corbusier divided each working day between painting and architecture, and carried out systematic research on bodies: women’s bodies distorted and recomposed as new figures, the morphogenesis of bodies deployed in a series of paintings and sketches that culminated in the mural in Badovici’s house in Vézelay (1936), presented to the public for the first time in this exhibition. Visitors can also see all the prototypes of the L.C. furniture series, designed by Le Corbusier after his visit to the Weissenhof Settlement in Stuttgart in 1927. This experimental city was the architectural manifesto of the international modernist movement. Its white, flat-roofed buildings were designed by Behrens, Gropius, Van der Rohe and Le Corbusier.
In the centre of the exhibition, the room devoted to the Modulor presents fifty-odd drawings and a number of objects. Between the exploratory drawings on mathematical formalisation and those describing geometrical progressions, the Modulor seems more like a regulating instrument than an abstract standard.
Le Corbusier’s acoustic period began with the Ozon sketches (1943) featuring an ear, which we find in numerous drawings and paintings (Ubu IV) and inspired a series of sculptures by Joseph Savina. The concept of acoustics is directly linked to the idea of an «indescribable space», a text that Le Corbusier published in a special issue of L’Architecture d’aujourd’hui. It continues with the idea of a psychophysics of space, where the senses of sight, hearing, and touch all resonate together in an area unified by harmonious proportions. This series of paintings and sculptures ends with the mural Le Corbusier created for his studio in Rue de Sèvres.
The «housing unit», on the scale of the human body, was introduced in the blocks and villas Le Corbusier designed after he visited the cells of the Charterhouse of   Galluzzo, near Florence. The systematic use of the Modulor to create the «Unité d’habitation» in Marseille defined the principle of a collective residence based on a universalist understanding of the scale and functions required by human beings. Le Corbusier developed this principle for other projects, increasingly including damp-stamped impressions of the Modulor in a number of drawings, some of which are on show in the exhibition.
Le Corbusier was keen to give shape to a shared spiritual space based on an understanding of the «indescribable space». His relationship with Father Couturier gave him an interest in programmes linked to sacred art. The idea of a spiritual community based on physiological constants and shared cultural values defined the unity of conception for these projects. The Philips Pavilion, simultaneously an event and the transfiguration of an extended acoustical space, established itself as a concrete manifesto accessible to a wide audience. Instead of a rational city and the planning of huge urban areas, Le Corbusier substituted a vision of the city constructed around symbolic buildings. He defined this humanist city in On the Four Roads and The Home of Man, published in the reviews L’Homme réel and L’Homme et l’architecture. Chandigarh established itself as a concrete demonstration of this universalist view of the world. In the early Fifties, the Indian authorities asked him to design the new capital of the Punjab. He was in charge of the entire urban planning of the town, and built the first official buildings and a number of private residences. He wanted to raise a monument to peace there as a symbol, with a hand – a part of the body – replacing the dove of peace.  
The exhibition ends with Le Corbusier’s most personal and symbolic expression of his thought: Le Cabanon, or little cabin. With this «housing unit» built on a rock by the sea at Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, Le Corbusier designed a minimalist living space. The cabin seems like a paradox for an architect who had made a name for himself in outsized urban projects – involving an intensive communication and skilfully orchestrated advertising that ceaselessly disseminated his image – but also in its aspiration to impoverishment. With the cabin, he expressed his desire to live in a minimum, minimal space, based simply on the physiology of the body. Le Corbusier lived there almost naked, and it was just below the cabin that he drowned during one of his daily swims in the Mediterranean, in 1965.




















LE CORBUSIER
‘’ I here declare, for every eventuality, that I leave everything that I possess to an administrative entity, the “Fondation Le Corbusier”, or any other meaningful form, which shall become a spiritual entity, that is, a continuation of the endeavour pursued throughout a lifetime. ‘’
Le Corbusier
Note dated 13 January 1960
While still only in his infancy as an architect and bulding artist, Charles-Edouard Jeanneret was already at an early age showing a will to achieve ambitious aims and a desire to leave behind him significant traces of his endeavour that would outlast his earthly existence. “Let life be something with a goal and not merely an arrow speeding toward death” he wrote to his parents in 1910.
Having become Le Corbusier, without direct heirs and driven by the fear that his carefully conserved archives and works be scattered after his death, he spent the last fifteen years of his life conceiving and implementing, down to its smallest details, the project of a Foundation that would bear his name.
Already in 1949, he had written, in a letter addressed to his friend Jean-Jacques Duval, for whom he built the Duval factory in Saint-Dié:
‘’ One can conk out at any time of life. I’ve been talking about it to my brother who is here on a visit. With my wife’s agreement, I have arranged to leave what I own to the poor.
Now, what I own can at best be used as something to light the fire with. Here at 24 rue Nungesser et Coli (and even at 35 Sèvres in a cellar), I have substantial archives of all kinds: drawings, writings, notes, travel diaries, albums, etc. I don’t want some hooligan happily pillaging it all, and destroying series whose value depends on their being complete.
In other words, we’ll have to take a look at my archives so as to make the most of them (to sell them, or give them to people, institutions or museums).
Conclusion: the aim of this letter is to set you thinking and to request you – when the time comes –to take immediate possession, or rather, immediate control of my archives, so as to protect them from being wrongfully scattered.
And the present letter, with my signature, is to be used as documentary proof, for whatever purpose it may serve.
With my friendship and my gratitude. ‘’
http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=19&IrisObjectId=7778&sysLanguage=en-en&itemPos=1&sysParentId=19&clearQuery=1