April 19, 2016

A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND AT MoMA NEW YORK




A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND AT MoMA NEW YORK
March 13, 2016 - July 4, 2016




A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION FOCUSES ON A NETWORK OF CONTEMPORARY JAPANESE ARCHITECTS, FRAMING A RADICAL MODEL OF PRACTICE IN THE 21st CENTURY  
A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND AT MoMA NEW YORK
March 13, 2016 - July 4, 2016
NEW YORK, February 26, 2016—A Japanese Constellation: Toyo Ito, SANAA, and Beyond focuses on the work of architects and designers orbiting Pritzker Prize winners Toyo Ito and SANAA. MoMA’s first presentation dedicated solely to Japanese practitioners, the exhibition spotlights a small cluster of contemporary Japanese architects working within the larger field, exploring their formal inventiveness and close professional relationships to frame a radical model of practice in the 21st century. The exhibition’s 44 projects represent a diverse range of work, from small domestic projects to museums. Presented in models, drawings, and projected slideshows, the work highlights the architects’ significant structural innovations and use of transparent and lightweight materials, while foregrounding their commitments to the social lives of their buildings, reviving a social conscience that characterized earlier avant-gardes. Drawing on Japanese material traditions, the exhibition design uses soft partitions of semi-translucent fabric, which act as surfaces for multimedia and provide an immersive visual experience. A Japanese Constellation is organized by Pedro Gadanho, former Curator of Contemporary Architecture at MoMA, and current Director of the Museum of Art, Architecture, and Technology (MAAT) in Lisbon, with Phoebe Springstubb, Curatorial Assistant, Department of Architecture and Design, MoMA.
A Japanese Constellation offers a retrospective of recent works by three generations of internationally acclaimed designers, including Toyo Ito, Kazuyo Sejima, Ryue Nishizawa, Sou Fujimoto, Akihisa Hirata, and Junya Ishigami. With its idea of a network of luminaries at work, the exhibition is intended as a reflection on the transmission of an architectural sensibility, and suggests an alternative model to what has been commonly described as an individuality-based “star-system” in contemporary architecture. Offering a panorama of established and up-andcoming architects, the exhibition reveals how shared architectural themes travel across generations of architects, creating a strong identity for a regional practice with global impact. As many of the featured architects have been involved in the reconstruction of Japan after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, the exhibition further reflects how the architecture field is responding to societal change with a combination of strong aesthetic positions and a commitment to users’ emotional needs. 
A Japanese Constellation is separated into six intersecting spaces, but begins with a display of models, drawings, and digital films by the six architects in a space adjacent to the exhibition’s entrance.
TOYO ITO
The opening section of the exhibition is devoted to the work of Toyo Ito (b. 1941). Ito approaches architecture conceptually, in search of a fluid language capable of interpreting the complexities of contemporary life and overcoming what he sees as the limitations of 20th-century modernism. Born during the height of WWII in Japanese-occupied Seoul, as a young architect he worked in the offices of Kiyonori Kikutake, one of the founders of Japan’s postwar Metabolist group known for its visionary urban experiments. Establishing his own office in 1971, Ito’s early work drew on this lineage, exploring lightweight materials and ephemeral designs that could respond to the technological and social changes rapidly transforming Japan’s cities at the turn of the 21st century. His design for the Sendai Mediatheque (1995–2001), which opens this section, was a turning point in his conceptual thinking, developing a highly innovative approach to the building’s structure that blurred boundaries, creating unexpected spatial effects and altering the social experience of the building. This experimental approach to structure is representative of Ito’s mature approach to architecture, in which form and geometry are shaped through a response to social needs and a desire to impart aesthetic pleasure rather than to pursue a particular architectural style. This trajectory culminates in the National Taichung Theater (2005–16), on view, in which transformations to a generic grid create expressively curved organic spaces meant to suggest the vitality of nature.   
KAZUYO SEJIMA
The following section is devoted to Kazuyo Sejima (b. 1956), an architect who creates designs attentive to the physical experiences of architecture, both as a relationship to time—the building’s transformation through use—and to the proportions of the human body. As a young architect in the early 1980s, she spent several formative years in Ito’s office during a period marked by Tokyo’s transformation through consumer culture and the technological products of the information age. Establishing her own office in 1987, her first built works unfolded in the precarious years following the collapse of Japan’s economic bubble, an environment that demanded a new, socially conscious architectural language. Sejima’s work, beginning with projects like the Saishunkan Seiyaku Women’s Dormitory (1991), has engaged this thinking in designs that critically examine both collective and private experiences of space. Her designs for residential and single-family houses develop nuanced, hybrid living spaces through an economy of means that incorporates details from the local surroundings, such as the House in a Plum Grove (1999–2004) that opens this section. Her larger projects are compelled by a civic understanding of architecture’s role in shaping and mediating public space, such as in the pavilions that compose the Art House Project at Inujima, where the synthesis of architecture and landscape creates settings for community engagement.
SANAA
SANAA (est. 1995), the collaborative Sejima and Nishizawa and Associates, operates in parallel to Sejima and Nishizawa’s individual practices. The three studios share one large
workspace allowing feedback and communication across projects. Focusing on larger cultural and international projects, SANAA works from simple, almost diagrammatic forms, using industrial materials like steel and glass in a language familiar to modern architecture. From these minimal components they generate an experientially complex, intentionally open-ended architecture. They organize space with acute attention to social dynamics and an emphasis on the phenomenal and sensorial effects of materials, such as the reflective and refractive properties of layered glass or the inordinate thinness of concrete walls. Their designs often modify boundaries—where the building meets the landscape, or where a private interior intersects with a public exterior—to create continuous spaces that multiply possibilities for spontaneous encounters. Lightness and transparency, which recur across their work, are used to express spatial proximity, movement, and the dissolution of the building’s physical presence vis-à-vis its context and social life. Many of these ideas are embodied in the 21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art (1999–2004), the early project opening this section, in which a circular plan creates a nonhierarchical continuity between the galleries and environment. Often likening their architecture to landscape and its ability to seamlessly integrate diverse experiences, the projects follow SANAA’s development of a flexible, inclusive architecture. 




RYUE NISHIZAWA
Ryue Nishizawa (b. 1966) worked in Sejima’s office as a post-graduate student for several years before the pair formalized their collaboration as SANAA and he established his own practice in 1997. In Nishizawa’s independent work, a recurring line of inquiry is the way in which architecture encounters its surroundings, whether the heterogeneous, unplanned urban fabric of the city or the uneven terrain of the landscape. He has explored this at both cultural and domestic scales in designs that reimagine the discrete enclosures of buildings, from the galleries of a museum to the rooms of a house, as a series of open volumes interspersed and in direct relationship to their context. In parallel to these compositions of linked buildings, his work explores irregular, organic forms that fold or knit the natural environment into the architecture, whether by sloping the floor plate to align to the topography or bringing a hillside into the interior by encapsulating it below a vaulted surface. Like the projects of SANAA, Nishizawa’s work is preoccupied with the immaterial qualities of light and transparency. He incorporates these effects into his designs as a way of reengaging place and the immediacy of perceptual experience in a contemporary context of increasingly global mobility.  
SOU FUJIMOTO
Exploring indeterminate conceptions of space, Sou Fujimoto (b. 1971) seeks to create structures that transform everyday routines and influence the social interactions between people. His conceptual inspiration is drawn from archetypal natural forms such as trees, caves, gardens, and clouds. For him, the nonhierarchical spatial organizations embodied by these forms describe a “primitive future” for architecture—a means through which to recover architecture’s essential role in establishing relationships between the human body and space. In his designs he creates flexible spaces that break down conventional hierarchies between interior and exterior, private and public—whether by replacing traditional walls and floors with stepped platforms to create layered experiences of privacy in domestic projects like House NA (2007–11) or by configuring the walls of Musashino Art University Library (2007–10) into a continuous geometric spiral that brings the urban campus into the library. Rethinking the functions of architecture’s basic elements (stairs, walls, windows), his architecture offers critical commentary on the social role of architecture, advancing models for new experiences, needs, and ways of occupying the contemporary city.   
AKIHISA HIRATA
Using mathematical algorithms and geometric patterns to mirror the organic complexity of the natural world, Akihisa Hirata’s (b. 1971) designs often start from observations of phenomena such as bubbles or smoke. He seeks to create what he describes as an “ecological” architecture. The sets of relationships that organize the living world are both a source for formfinding—the pleated surfaces of seaweed as a model for sculpted walls, for example—and a means to link a building to its surroundings. Simple operations such as folding, curving, or pleating— applied at different scales—allow for the creation of highly variable spaces that depart from the uniform spaces of modern architecture. Hirata’s use of natural motifs as the basis for the development of bold structural designs references his work in Ito’s office, where he was involved in the early designs for the National Taichung Theater (2005–16). In the projects on view, he explores this at both a domestic and urban scale, from Architecture Farm’s (2007–08) curved walls that extend the house into the landscape, to Foam Form’s (2011) intricate structural lattice that merges a series of buildings with a park.
JUNYA ISHIGAMI
Junya Ishigami (b. 1974) explores the physical limits of architecture—how thin a structure, how lightweight a material, how vast a space can be—in pursuit of novel perceptual experiences. His early work featured a series of installations that drew on artistic practices to test the material limits of what can constitute architecture. In Balloon (2007–08), a five-story metallic inflatable is designed to float effortlessly, appearing to defy gravity. These radical aesthetic ideas are combined with a sophisticated use of structural engineering in buildings that make ambiguous the boundaries between architecture and art, structure and landscape. At the Kanagawa Institute of Technology Workshop (2005–08), the precise orientation of hundreds of columns creates a forest-like space, while at House and Restaurant (2013–ongoing) the excavation of soil posits new ways of physically making architecture. Ishigami’s use of minimal and abstract elements are informed in part by his years in Kazuyo Sejima’s office, where he worked on projects including House in a Plum Grove (1999–2004), on view. His own work aspires to an extreme openness that foregrounds environmental or atmospheric effects and is rendered meaningful through the sense of wonder people bring to it. 
The exhibition concludes with the Home-for-All initiative. In March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake struck the northeastern Tohoku region of Japan’s main island, Honshu, devastating many of the small coastal towns and displacing thousands of residents. In the wake of the disaster, a group of five Japanese architects, led by Toyo Ito and including Kazuyo Sejima, proposed Home-for-All, an initiative to provide simple communal structures for meetings and social events in areas of temporary housing. Designed in conversation with local residents,
students, and builders, each project responds directly to a town’s particular needs—from providing spaces for children to play to establishing a base for the local fishing industry. The first was built in Miyagino, Sendai, in October 2011, and 15 have now been completed or are under construction. Conceived as not only a building project but as a means to revive the sense of community lost during the earthquake and tsunami, Home-for-All asks architects to take on a renewed sense of social responsibility and to design public spaces through public consensus over and above individual interests.
You may visit my blog to see Moma's past exhibitions news Conception of Space, Cut 'n' Paste From Architectural Assemblage to Collage City and Le Corbusier: Atlas of Modern Landscapes to click below links.

http://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/1615
http://mymagicalattic.blogspot.com.tr/2014/09/conception-of-space-at-museum-of-modern.html
http://mymagicalattic.blogspot.com.tr/2013/08/cut-n-paste-from-architectural.html
http://mymagicalattic.blogspot.com.tr/2013/09/le-corbusier-atlas-of-modern-landscapes.html








TOYO ITO & ASSOCIATES, ARCHITECTS. SENDAI MEDIATHEQUE
MIYAGI, JAPAN 1995 - 2001
Model: Acrylic
Dimensions: 27 x 80 x 74 cm
The Museum of Modern Art, New York
Gift of the Architect in Honor of Philip Johnson © 2015 Toyo Ito




TOYO ITO, SENDAI MEDIATHEQUE, MIYAGI, JAPAN 1995 - 2001
© Naoya Hatakeyama
















TOYO ITO, SENDAI MEDIATHEQUE, MIYAGI, JAPAN 1995 - 2001
© Naoya Hatakeyama






INSTALLATION VIEW OF A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 13 - July 4, 2016
© 2016 The Museum of Modern Art. Photo: Thomas Griesel




TOD'S DESIGN BY TOYO ITO










BRUGGE PAVILION DESIGN BY TOYO ITO












BRUGGE PAVILION DESIGN BY TOYO ITO












TOYO ITO, MEISO NO MORI MUNICIPAL FUNERAL HALL, GIFU, JAPAN, 2004 - 2006










TOYO ITO, MEISO NO MORI MUNICIPAL FUNERAL HALL, GIFU, JAPAN, 2004 - 2006
© Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects








INSTALLATION VIEW OF A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 13 - July 4, 2016
© 2016 The Museum of Modern Art. Photo: Thomas Griesel




NATIONAL TAUCHING THEATRE, TAUCHING TAIWAN




NATIONAL TAUCHING THEATRE, TAUCHING TAIWAN






 TAMA ART UNIVERSITY LIBRARY BY TOYO ITO










 TAMA ART UNIVERSITY LIBRARY BY TOYO ITO










TOYO ITO ( BORN 1941 ) & ASSOCIATES, ARCHITECTS, TOKYO - 1971
Toyo Ito studied architecture at University of Tokyo before working at the office of Kiyonori Kikutake from 1965 to 1969. He opened his own studio Tokyo, known initially as Urban Robot in 1971, before establishing Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects, in 1979. His earliest projects were individual residences, including Aluminum House (1971), in Kanagawa, and White U (1976), in Tokyo. His practice gained international prominence following his critically acclaimed, technically innovative Sendai Mediatheque (1995-2001). Recent projects by Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects, include Minna no Mari Media Cosmos (2011 – 2015), in Gifu, Japan, and National Taichung Theater, currently under construction. Following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, Ito started Home-for-All, a reconstruction initiative to provide buildings for impacted communities. Ito has been a visiting professor at Harward Graduate School of Design, University of Tokyo, Columbia University, University of California, Los Angeles, Kyoto University, and Tama Art University. His writings have been widely published and his work broadly exhibited, including in Toyo Ito: Generative Order (2008) at the Taipei Fine Arts Museum. Ito has received numerous international awards including the 2013 Pritzker Architecture Prize, the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement at the eight International Architecture Exhibition, La Biennale di Venezzia, the 2010 Praemium Imperiale, and the Royal Gold Medal from the Royal Institute of British Architects in 2006.

http://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/1615
You may visit Toyo Ito's project Tama Art University Library to click below link.
http://mymagicalattic.blogspot.com.tr/2014/03/the-pritzker-prize-2013-winner-toyo-ito.html




 SERPENTINE SACKLER GALLERY, LONDON BY TOYO ITO








SERPENTINE SACKLER GALLERY, LONDON BY TOYO ITO






UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY ART 
MUSEUM & PACIFIC FILM ARCHIVE BY TOYO ITO




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY ART 
MUSEUM & PACIFIC FILM ARCHIVE BY TOYO ITO






INSTALLATION VIEW OF A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 13 - July 4, 2016
© 2016 The Museum of Modern Art. Photo: Thomas Griesel




 TOYO ITO MUSEUM OF ARCHITECTURE, JAPAN 








TOYO ITO MUSEUM OF ARCHITECTURE, JAPAN 










 SERPENTINE SACKLER GALLERY, LONDON BY SOU FUJIMOTO












 SERPENTINE SACKLER GALLERY, LONDON BY SOU FUJIMOTO








SOU FUJIMOTO, HOUSE NA, TOKYO, 2007 - 2011
© Iwan Baan




INSTALLATION VIEW OF A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 13 - July 4, 2016
© 2016 The Museum of Modern Art. Photo: Thomas Griesel




SOU FUJIMOTO, HOUSE NA, TOKYO, 2007 - 2011
© Iwan Baan








SOU FUJIMOTO (BORN 1971) ARCHITECTS, TOKYO, 2000
Sou Fujimoto studied architecture at University of Tokyo before establishing his own studio, Sou Fujimoto Architects, in 2000. His projetcs include Children’s Centre for Psychiatric Rehabilitation (2003), in Hokkaido, Final Wooden House (2006-2008), in Kuma-gun, Musashino Art University Museum and Library (2007-2010), and the 2013 Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, in London. Fujimoto’s recent work includes winning competition designs for Ecole Polytechnique at Universite Paris-Saclay and House of Hungarian Music in Budapest. Fujimoto has taught at Tokyo University of Science, University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, Keio University, and University of Wiskonsin-Milwaukee, and was a judge at the World Architecture Festival in 2015. His writings have been published widely and his work exhibited internationally, most recently in Sou Fujimoto: Futures of the Future (2015), held at Toyo Gallery and Shangai Museum of Contemporary Art. He was awarded a Royal Instıtute of British Architects International Fellowship in 2012, and received the 2014 WSJ Magazine Architecture Innovator Award, 2013 Marcus Prize, and 2008 Private House award from the World Architecture Festival for Final Wooden House. He was corecipient of the Golden Lion at the thirteenth International Architecture Exhibition, La Biennale di venezi, in 2012. In 2008, Fujimoto published Primitive Future (INAX, Tokyo), which became the year’s bestselling architecture book.

http://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/1615
You may visit Sou Fujimoto's Project of Serpentine Pavilion London to click below link from my blog.
http://mymagicalattic.blogspot.com.tr/2013/06/serpentine-pavilion-design-by-sou.html




SOU FUJIMOTO, HOUSE N, OITA, JAPAN 2006 - 2008
© Iwan Baan




PRIMITIVE FUTURE HOUSE BY SOU FUJIMOTO






PRIMITIVE FUTURE HOUSE BY SOU FUJIMOTO






MUSASHINO ART UNIVERSITY MUSEUM & LIBRARY, TOKYO  BY SOU FUJIMOTO


















MUSASHINO ART UNIVERSITY MUSEUM & LIBRARY, TOKYO  BY SOU FUJIMOTO










BLOOMBERG PAVILION MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART, 
TOKYO BY AKIHISA HIRATA










BLOOMBERG PAVILION MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART, 
TOKYO BY AKIHISA HIRATA






AKIHISA HIRATA, FOAM FORM, KAOHSIUNG, TAIWAN, PROJECT, 2011
© Akihisa Hirata Architecture Office and Kuramochi + Oguma




INSTALLATION VIEW OF A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 13 - July 4, 2016
© 2016 The Museum of Modern Art. Photo: Thomas Griesel




ARCHITECTURE FARM, TAIWAN BY NAKIHISA HIRATA






TREE-NESS HOUSE, TOKYO BY AKIHISA HIRATA






TREE-NESS HOUSE, TOKYO BY AKIHISA HIRATA






AKIHISA HIRATA, SHOWROOM H MASUYA, NIIGATA, JAPAN, 2006 - 2007






AKIHISA HIRATA, SHOWROOM H MASUYA, NIIGATA, JAPAN, 2006 - 2007
© Nacása & Partners Inc.
 



AKIHISA HIRATA, SHOWROOM H MASUYA, NIIGATA, JAPAN, 2006 - 2007
© Nacása & Partners Inc.










AKIHISA HIRATA ( BORN 1971 ) ARCHITECTURE OFFICE, TOKYO – 2005
Akihisa Hirata studied architecture at University of Tokyo and completed postgraduate studies at Kyoto University Graduate School of Engineering.  He worked for Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects, from 1997 until 2005, when he founded Akihisa Hirata Architecture Office in Tokyo. Hirata’s recent work includes the Higashi Totsuka Church (2015), in Yokohama, and Kotoriku Meguroku Collective Housing (2012 – 2014), in Tokyo. He has lectured at Harvard Graduate School of design, Bauhaus Dessau, and the Bartlett School of Architecture at University College, London. He is currently a part time lecturer at Tohoku University, Kyoto University, University of Tokyo, and Tama Art University. In 2015, his work was shown at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Krakow and the Triennale di Milano. An exhibition of his work, Akihisa Hirata: Tangling, was held at London’s Architecture Foundation Project Space, in 2012, and at Grand Hornu Images, in Hornu, Belgium, in 2013. Hirata was a corecipient of the Golden Lion at the thirteenth International Architecture Exhibition, La Biennale di Venezi, in 2012, and has also been awarded the 2015 Colored Concrete Works Award, the 2012 Elita Design Award, Elle Deco’s Young Japanese Design Talent Award, in 2009, and the Japan Intıtute of Architect’s 2008 New Face Award.

http://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/1615




THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART NEW YORK




THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART NEW YORK
Founded in 1929 as an educational institution, The Museum of Modern Art is dedicated to being the foremost museum of modern art in the world.
Through the leadership of its Trustees and staff, The Museum of Modern Art manifests this commitment by establishing, preserving, and documenting a collection of the highest order that reflects the vitality, complexity and unfolding patterns of modern and contemporary art; by presenting exhibitions and educational programs of unparalleled significance; by sustaining a library, archives, and conservation laboratory that are recognized as international centers of research; and by supporting scholarship and publications of preeminent intellectual merit.
Central to The Museum of Modern Art’s mission is the encouragement of an ever-deeper understanding and enjoyment of modern and contemporary art by the diverse local, national, and international audiences that it serves. You may read more about MoMA’s entire information to click below link.

http://press.moma.org/about/






THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART NEW YORK
DIRECTOR GLENN D. LOWRY
















THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART NEW YORK
DIRECTOR GLENN D. LOWRY




THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART NEW YORK










KAZUYO SEJIMA ( BORN 1956 ) & ASSOCIATES, TOKYO – 1987
Kazuyo Sejima studied architecture at Japan Women’s University before working in the offices of Toyo Ito. Sejima established her own studio, Kazuyo Sejima & Associates, in Tokyo in 1987. Her significant early projects include Saishunkan Seiyaku Women’s Dormitory (1990- 1991), in Kumamoto, Villa in the Forest (1992 – 1994), in Chino, and Police Box (1994), in Tokyo. With Ryue Nishizawa, Sejima founded SANAA ( Sejima and Nishizawa and Associates ) in 1995. SANAA’s recent projects include Grace Farms, in New Canaan, Connecticut, and Okayama University Café, in Japan, both completed in 2015. Both Sejima and Nishizawa maintain individual practices parallel to SANAA, which have achieved international recognition and are often sites of intensely experimental work. Sejima’s recent work includes Inujima Art House Project (2008-2010) and Nakamachi Terrace Community Center and Library ( 2010 – 2014). She has taught at Princeton Iniversity and Ecole Polytechnique federale de Lausanne, and is currently a visiting professor at Tama Art University, Japan Woman’s University, Kanazawa College of Art, Okayama University, Keio University, and University of Applied Arts Vienna, Austria. In 2010, Sejima and Nishizawa were corecipients of the Pritzker Architecture Prize. They have also been awarded the Golden Lion award at the ninth International Architecture Exhibition, La Biennale di Venezia, in 2004, the Kunstpreis Berlin from the Berlin Academy of Arts, in 2007, and the Rolf Schock Visual Arts Prize, in 2008.

http://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/1615








NAKAMACHI TERRACE COMMUNITY CENTER BY KAZUYO SEJIMA








NAKAMACHI TERRACE COMMUNITY CENTER BY KAZUYO SEJIMA






KAZUYO SEJIMA, HOUSE IN A PLUM GROVE, TOKYO, 1999 - 2004
 © Kazuyo Sejima & Associates




INUJIMA ART HOUSE PROJECT, JAPAN BY KAZUYO SEJIMA












KAZUYO SEJIMA, INUJIMA ART HOUSE PROJECT, INUJIMA, JAPAN, 2008 - 2010
A-Art House with Haruka Kojin’s reflectwo, 2013
© Kazuyo Sejima & Associates
 



KAZUYO SEJIMA, NISHINOYAMA HOUSE, KYOTO, JAPAN, 2010 - 2014
© Kazuyo Sejima & Associates
  







ROLEX LEARNING CENTRE, ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE 
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE BY SANAA






















ROLEX LEARNING CENTRE, ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE 
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE BY SANAA






GRACE FARMS, NEW CANAAN, CONNECTICUT BY SANAA




GRACE FARMS, NEW CANAAN, CONNECTICUT BY SANAA






INSTALLATION VIEW OF A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 13 - July 4, 2016
© 2016 The Museum of Modern Art. Photo: Thomas Griesel




NEW MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART, NEW YORK BY SANAA












SANAA, 21st CENTURY MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART  




















SANAA, 21st CENTURY MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART  
Kanazawa, Japan, 1999 - 2004
© SANAA





INSTALLATION VIEW OF A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 13 - July 4, 2016
© 2016 The Museum of Modern Art. Photo: Thomas Griesel




ZOLLVEREIN SCHOOL OF MANAGEMANT & DESIGN, GERMANY BY SANAA


















ZOLLVEREIN SCHOOL OF MANAGEMANT & DESIGN, GERMANY BY SANAA






TAUCHING CITY CULTURAL CENTER, TAIWAN BY SANAA










RYUE NISHIZAWA, TOWADA ART CENTER, AOMORI, JAPAN 2005 - 2008
© Office of Ryue Nishizawa






RYUE NISHIZAWA, HIROSHI SENJU MUSEUM, NAGANO, JAPAN 2007 – 2010
© Daici Ano



RYUE NISHIZAWA, TOWADA ART CENTER, AOMORI, JAPAN 2005 - 2008






GARDEN & HOUSE, TOKYO, JAPAN BY RYUE NISHIZAWA




MORIYAMA HOUSE, TOKYO, JAPAN BY RYUE NISHIZAWA




MORIYAMA HOUSE, TOKYO, JAPAN BY RYUE NISHIZAWA










OFFICE OF RYUE NISHIZAWA ( BORN 1966 ), TOKYO, 1997
Ryue Nishizawa studied architecture at Yokohama National University while working in the office of Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects. After graduation, he worked with Kazuyo Sejima at Kazuyo Sejima & Associates in Tokyo. With Sejima, Nishizawa founded SANAA in 1995. In 1997, he founded Office of Ryue Nishizawa, maintaining this practice in parallel with SANAA. SANAA’s proposal for Taichung City Cultural Center in Taiwan is currently in design and the firm has recently been selected to extend both the Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, and the Shiga Museum of Art near Kyoto. Nishizawa’s recent work includes Roof and Mushroom Pavilion, in Kyoto, completed in 2013, and Ikuta Church, in Kanagawa, completed in 2014. Nishizawa has taught at Princeton University, Harvard Graduate School of Design, and Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne. He is currently a professor at Yokohama Graduate School of Architecture and a visiting professor at Kanazawa College  of Art and Okayama University. In 2010, Nishizawa and Sejima were corecipients of the Pritzker Architecture Prize. They have also been awarded the Golden Lion award at the ninth International Architecture Exhibition, La Biennale di Venezia, in 2004, the Kunstpreis Berlin from the Berlin Academy of Arts, in 2007, and the Rolf Schock Visual Arts Prize, in 2008.





RYUE NISHIZAWA, TESHIMA ART MUSEUM, KAGAWA, JAPAN, 2004 - 2010
© Office of Ryue Nishizawa
















RYUE NISHIZAWA, TESHIMA ART MUSEUM, KAGAWA, JAPAN, 2004 - 2010










JUNYA ISHIGAMA, KANAGAWA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP




JUNYA ISHIGAMA, KANAGAWA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP
Kanagawa, Japan, 2005 - 2008
© Junya.Ishigami + Associates






JUNYA ISHIGAMA, KANAGAWA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP
Kanagawa, Japan, 2005 - 2008
© Junya.Ishigami + Associates






INSTALLATION VIEW OF A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 13 - July 4, 2016
© 2016 The Museum of Modern Art. Photo: Thomas Griesel








JUNYA ISHIGAMA, KANAGAWA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP






INSTALLATION VIEW OF A JAPANESE CONSTELLATION: TOYO ITO, SANAA & BEYOND
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 13 - July 4, 2016
© 2016 The Museum of Modern Art. Photo: Thomas Griesel




PORT OF KINMEN PASSENGER SERVICE CENTER, TAIWAN BY JUNYA ISHIGAMA








PORT OF KINMEN PASSENGER SERVICE CENTER, TAIWAN BY JUNYA ISHIGAMA






JUNYA ISHIGAMA, HOUSE WITH PLANTS, JAPAN, 2009 - 2012
© Junya.Ishigami + Associates





JUNYA ISHIGAMA, HOUSE WITH PLANTS, JAPAN, 2009 - 2012










JUNYA ISHIGAMI ( BORN 1974 ), TOKYO – 2004
Junya Ishigami studied architecture at Tokyo University of the Arts, receiving an MFA in 2000, before working at Kazuyo Sejima & Associates from 2000 to 2004. In 2004, he established Junya.Ishigami + Associates. Ishigami’s acclaimed first building, Kanagawa Institute of Technology Workshop, received the 2009 Architectural Institute of Japan Prize. Recent work includes a commission for a public sculpture in Sydney, Cloud Arch, and a winning competition proposal for House of Peace (2014), a structure for Copenhagen’s Nordhavn harbor. His work has been the subject of multiple publications and exhibitions including, most recently, the monograph Junya Ishigami: How Small? How Vast? How Architecture Grows ( Hatje Cantz, 2014 ). Ishigami is currently an associate professor at Tohoku University in Sendai. In 2015, he taught at Princeton University School of Architecture, and in 2014, at Harvard Graduate School of Designn. Ishigami’s installation work includes Balloon (2007) at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Tokyo, and Architecture as Air: Study for Chateau la Coste (2010) at the Twelfth International Architecture Exhibition, La Biennale di venezi, which was awarded the Golden Lion and the Global Award for Suistainable Architecture and was exhibited in 2011 at the Barbican’s Curve, a gallery space in London.

 http://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/1615






CURATOR PEDRO GADANHO
Pedro Gadanho Director of the Museum of Art, Architecture, and Technology (MAAT) in Lisbon, and the former Curator of Contemporary Architecture at The Museum of Modern Art Pedro Gadanho is a curator, a writer, and an architect. Previously he was a curator of contemporary architecture at The Museum of Modern Art, where he was responsible for the Young Architects Program, and curated exhibitions such as 9+1 Ways of Being Political, Uneven Growth, Endless House, and A Japanese Constellation. Gadanho holds an MA in art and architecture and PhD in architecture and mass media. He was the editor of BEYOND bookazine and the Shrapnel Contemporary blog, contributes regularly to international publications, and is the author of Arquitetura em Público, a recipient of the FAD Prize for Thought and Criticism in 2012.

http://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/1615






PRELUDE
As I was beginning work on this text in the spring of 2015, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation announced the winners of a competition for a new museum in Helsinki with pomp and circumstance. According to a museum press release, the call attracted more entries than any of its kind in history, with 1.715 submissions from nearly eighty countries. Yet what captured my attention was the fact that the young French-Japanese firm awarded the commission, Moreau Kusunoki Architectes (est. 2011), is directed by disciples of Japan’s SANAA (est 1995), Kengo Kuma ( born 19549, and Shigeru Ban (born 1957), whose architecture has been met with wide acclaim. This was, to my mind, yet another sign of the influence contemporary Japanese architects wield over the discipline worldwide. Moreover, their impact was escalating as the work of global architects began to be received with a new mood. As the vice chairman of the city of Helsinki’ s  executive board said to the New York Times on the occasion, ‘’ It’s not the fashion to create ‘ wow ‘ architecture anymore, ‘’ alluding to Frank Gehry’s design for the Guggenheim Bilbao almost two decades before. Cast against the expressive flamboyancy of the American museum’s first outpost, the submission by this virtually unknown duo  of young architects was distinctly contextual, embracing  local traditions and blending with existing city. Mark Wigley, jury chair and professor and former dean of the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation at Columbia University, told the Times that the proposal ‘’ kind of undoes the monumentality of most museums. ‘’ While the invariable, sometimes pharaonic styles of so- called starchitects – architects whose worldwide celebrity and acclaim have transformed them into idols of design – were gradually coming under attack, the subtle but influential sensitivity of some Japanese architects was emerging through the crevices of the previous establishment and flourishing.
ARCHITECTURE FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
Society I undergoing shifts that far more pragmatic and radical than we even imagine, so I harbor no frustrations concerning such a development, nor do I even think to despair over it. I have, therefore, but one interest: the question of whether architecture as architecture is feasible in such times.

As was the case across various fields in Japan during the early twentieth century, architects, too, had looked to Western culture to inspire change within the country’s deeply ingrained traditions. As Terunobu Fujimore recounts elsewhere in this book ( p.73 ), in the first half of the twentieth century, a number of architects from Japan worked with some of Europe and the United State’s most important modernists. Eventually, these Japanese apprentices would bring home innovative materials and a novel interest in functionalism, borrowings that would in part serve to fulfill ambitions of modernization across Japanese society. But the influence wasn’t merely unidirectional: classical Japanese art and architecture had for some time generated considerable fascination among early modernists in the West. 




For those architects privileging both clarity of design and functionality over ornament – including masters such as Frank Lloyd Wright ( 1867-1959 ), Bruno Taut ( 1880-1938 ), and Walter Gropius ( 1883 – 1969 ) traditional architecture from Japan offered a unique aesthetic, its undecorated geometric constructions and refined spatial qualities highly unusual. This mutual curiosity fomented prolonged exchange between Japanese and Western architecture throughout the twentieth century.
The resulting architectural cross-pollinations, the products of a fruitful give-and-take between two distinct conceptions of space, assumed different forms in the postwar period. During the 1960’s, for instance, the Japanese Metabolists, as much as figures such as Kenzo Tange ( 1913-2005 ) or Arata Isozaki ( born 1931 ), absorbed impulses from the Western avant-garde. They rose to prominence in Japanese society and eventually captured the interest of many forward-thinking architects elsewhere. Two decades later, in the 1980’s, the country’s development of a local but significant variant of postmodernism not only aligned many Japanese architects with their Western counterparts; it also influenced architectural styles in the international arena.
In the 1990s, the circumtances were suited once again for Japanese architecture to become a reference for architects outside Japan. As an intensely metropolitan culture thrived in Tokyo and other major Japanese cities, the nation’s architects found themselves immersed in a global culture as much as in an urban society fronting numerous trends that would come to mark the start of the twenty-first century – from the explosion of consumer culture to the omnipresence of information to the increasing erraticism and instability of national and global economic cycles. ‘’ Japanese architecture anticipated and explored the ways in which the discipline could mirror the problems and inspirations of a new social condition.
As the twentieth century transitioned into the twenty-first, a new crop of Japanese architects found international acclaim. The elegant restraint and precise materiality of Tadao Ando’s ( born 1941 ) ‘’ critical regionalism ‘’ and the technical optimism and spatial innovation of Toyo Ito’s ( born 1941 ) conceptualism rendered Japanese architects influential once again in the global arena. Working at the crossroads of technological and social change, many of these architects intimated design languages that offered refuge from the frantic pace of urbanization; others, conversely, embraced the imaginative possibilities of ‘’ things to come. ‘’ The subsequent generation of architects, among theme Kuma, Kazuyo Sejima ( bor 1956 ) and Ban, respectively explored the renewal of tradition, of radical spatial possibilities, and of the innovative potential of sustainable design. The global recognition of Japan’s architects skyrocketed; in no other national context would a group of architects achieve such high acclaim for their regional characteristics. Shortly after earlier masters Tange and Fumihiko Maki ( born 1928, fig. 3 ) won the Pritzker Architecture Prize, each of the aforementioned architects became laureates of the profession’s highest ranking honor, with the exception of Kuma.
Ito, in particular, was highly conscious of the socioeconomic transformations around him, and was keen to use this awareness to propel and sustain his architectural thinking. In the controversial yet essential manifesto quoted in this section’s epigraph – authored, it is worth noting, in the wake of the country’s 1980s asset price bubble economy – Ito foresees the media frenzy that would increasingly mark the reception of high-end architecture. Today, architecture is being constructed and consumed at a tremendous pace, ‘’ Ito wrote. ‘’ Thus, we have no choice but to stand before the sea of consumption, immerse ourselves, and swim through it to discover what lies on the far shore. ‘’ Taking a critical stance toward the previous wave of Japanese avant-garde architects, who achieved national and international acclaim only to abandon their utopian ideals, Ito urged his contemporaries to retain experimentation as an essential trait of what he called a ‘’ vibrant and stimulating ‘’ architecture that is ‘’ generated at the margins ‘’, and thus distinguishes itself from mass processes of production and consumption. ‘’

Embracing postmodernism’s semiotic diversity rather than its style, Ito’s proposals for a nonspecific architecture driven by an avant-garde impetus and a quintessentially modern agenda would mold the interests of a constellation of Japanese architects extending more than three generations. The premise of this book, and the related exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art, is precisely that this lineage of architects both affirms and heightens the allure of Japanese architecture worldwide. Yet, the book also presents a set of architectural positions that may be considered an important model for the architecture of the twenty first century – not least for this model’s rearrangement of hierarchical relationships among architects themselves.




REINSTATING THE ARCHITECTURAL AVANT-GARDE
Architecture that is modern in style only no longer has the power to change society. Arrchitecture that is recognized only by architects and not by the public has no future. I believe that an architecture that truly has the power to reform society today must channel its critical power into a different from of proposal.
Toyo Ito
The international influence of contemporary Japanese architecture in the 1990s followed on postmodernist debates that polarized around a regression of architecture to its more concervative stylistic roots and a contrasting desire to prolong the modernist project. Althought in Europe and the United States postmodernist architects embraced either historicism or its nemesis, deconstructivist architecture, in Japan architects responded instead to the increasing omnipresence of popular urban culture. As architectural
Theorist Charles Jencks said of Ito and other Tokyo practitioner during this era, their embrace of the city as a ‘’ theatre of signs and symbols ‘’ reiterated the emergence of semiotics during the 1970s. In an interview conducted shortly after the turn of the century, Ito suggested that architecture must act as a ‘’ media suit ‘’ by which he means, in his own words, as a ‘’ figuration of information to adjust vortex. ‘’ Following Marshall McLuhan’s theory that clothes and shelter act as an extention of our skin – that is, as a means to adjust to the natural environment -Ito claimed that contemporary architecture should serve as ‘’ a means to adjust oueselves to the information environment. ‘’
What began as a spontaneous response to a fast-changing urban environment would soon prompt a return to avant-garde ideals in Japan, an updated version of the radicalism found in early twentieth-century modernism. To be sure, the transformation wasn’t immediate. There was, for instance, a period in which these architects were it, ‘’ attracted to the idea of ‘’ with drawal ‘’ from urban intensity. As Ito put it, ‘’ the act of carving out discrete points of space – beautifully untouched and devoid of inscribed meaning – in cities seemed very fresh at the time. ‘’ Projects such as Ito’s White U, of 1976, in Tokyo ( see fig. 2, p.189 ), and even Sejima’s much later Saishunkan Seiyaku Women’s Dormitory, of 1991, in Kumamoto City (fig. 4), created an enclosed architectural universe that, following on the legacy of Kazuo Shinohara (1925-2006) and of the oil crisis of 1973, rejects the surrounding urban chaos. In a recent interview, Ito emphasized that these buildings – which, as he described them, ‘’ turned their backs to the city ‘’ – correspond to an ‘’ era of introspection, ‘’ each an attempt to be ‘’ in touch with the changing circumtances of society. ‘’

Nonetheless, he would soon recognize that ‘’ architecture’s attempts at autonomy or artistry, ‘’ while valid in the 1970s, were no longer justifiable. Sejima, on the other hand, rejected the hierarchical thinking inherent in conventional approaches to architecture. Her Women’s Dormitory reinvented the city ‘’ outside ‘’ in a living space that, as Yuko Hasegawa, chief curator at the Museumof Contemporary Art Tokyo, noted, destabilized the ‘’ idea of borders between private and public domains ‘’ and critically examined ‘’ concepts such as personal space, identity, society and public. ‘’




Ito upheld as essential to his vision a critical stance he inherited from the modern avant-garde: that architecture should serve as a ‘’ rejection of the existing social system ‘’ and as a form of social critique. This belief could be seen as problematic when worldwide the architect’s mission was increasingly recognized as the simple delivery of functional artifacts. Yet, following the reception of Ito’s groundbreaking 2001 Sendai Mediatheque (fig. 5), a cultural resource center in Sendai, the architect confessed he felt heartened that his most radical proposal to date was also the one audiences met with the most delight. One of Ito’s main objectives for the center, whose holdings include film, books, magazines, and visual art, was to do away with the ‘’ fixed barriers ‘’ that have traditionally divided various mediums, and to propose a model for ‘’ how cultural facilities should be from now on. ‘’ The building’s ecstatic reception, both within the architectural milieu and among everyday users, affirmed that a transformative design concept can in fact influence social perceptions and that, as held by the early modernists, architecture’s ‘’ critical spirit had the power to change society. ‘’
This affirmation not only encouraged Ito to invent novel architectural languages with each new project but also yielded an intellectual context in which the generations that followed could chase their own radical visions. Thus, SANAA, a firm founded by Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa (born 1966), persistently reinvents avant-garde strategies. They employ abstract functional diagrams to create distinctive spatial experiences that, above all, privilege unexpected discovery and sensorial pleasure on the part of their users. Thus, Sou Fujimoto, an architect of the following generation, aspires to ‘’ create fundamental or new relationship between people ‘’ by advancing architectural strategies with indeterminate conceptions of space. He dares to promote artistic statements that, despite invalidating architectural functionalism, captivate clients nonetheless, offering them a different kind of everyday life. Thus, Akihisa Hirata (born 1971), who envisages transcending the limitations of late modern architecture in ‘’ an era without ethics, ’’ adopts radical formal and ecological trategies that privilege architecture’s ‘’ interdependent relationship with its surroundings. ‘’ Thus, Junya Ishigami (born 1974) investigates the physical limits of architecture, artistically exploiting lightness, structure, and scal (fig. 6). His pursuit of ‘’ pure possibilities ‘’ afforded his work the impetus of an avant-garde disconnected from the contingencies of an increasingly conservative environment.
Early in the twenty-first century, Toyo Ito, SANAA, and their younger affiliates thoroughly questioned every conceivable architectural rule and premise. Their architectural explorations resisted the shortcomings of neomodernist designs emerging elsewhere, while simultaneously remaining true to the destabilizing stances of the first modern avant-gardes. Moreover, these architects sought out exquisite, unexpected beauty, charging their work – and that of the Japanese architects they have influenced – with a mix of ethics and aesthetics that in order architectural contexts was slowly disappearing.
NOT: You may read all the statement to click below link from exhibition book of A Japanese Constellation MoMA pdf format and to take the book from Moma Store to read whole book.

http://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/1615